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Gods of Egypt is available to watch and stream, buy on demand at Google Play, iTunes online. Some platforms allow you to rent Gods of Egypt for a limited time or purchase the movie and download it to your device.

Rania Youssef showed off a little too much in public, according to Egyptian authorities. Gods of Egypt threw lots of money and special effects at the screen, but its efforts weren't enough to knock Marvel's mouthy mercenary from the top spot at the box office.

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Browse Amazon Prime! Watch Unlimited Movies Start your free trial now. More Like Gods of Egypt. Yet overall, the gods are more like archetypes than well drawn characters.

The first divine act is the creation of the cosmos, described in several creation myths. They focus on different gods, each of which may act as creator deities.

Each gives a different perspective on the complex process by which the organized universe and its many deities emerged from undifferentiated chaos.

The gods struggle against the forces of chaos and among each other before withdrawing from the human world and installing the historical kings of Egypt to rule in their place.

A recurring theme in these myths is the effort of the gods to maintain maat against the forces of disorder.

They fight vicious battles with the forces of chaos at the start of creation. Ra and Apep, battling each other each night, continue this struggle into the present.

The clearest instance where a god dies is the myth of Osiris's murder , in which that god is resurrected as ruler of the Duat. In the process he comes into contact with the rejuvenating water of Nun , the primordial chaos.

Funerary texts that depict Ra's journey through the Duat also show the corpses of gods who are enlivened along with him.

Instead of being changelessly immortal, the gods periodically died and were reborn by repeating the events of creation, thus renewing the whole world.

Some poorly understood Egyptian texts even suggest that this calamity is destined to happen—that the creator god will one day dissolve the order of the world, leaving only himself and Osiris amid the primordial chaos.

Gods were linked to specific regions of the universe. In Egyptian tradition, the world includes the earth, the sky, and the Duat.

Surrounding them is the dark formlessness that existed before creation. Most events of mythology, set in a time before the gods' withdrawal from the human realm, take place in an earthly setting.

The deities there sometimes interact with those in the sky. The Duat, in contrast, is treated as a remote and inaccessible place, and the gods who dwell there have difficulties in communicating with those in the world of the living.

It too is inhabited by deities, some hostile and some beneficial to the other gods and their orderly world. In the time after myth, most gods were said to be either in the sky or invisibly present within the world.

Temples were their main means of contact with humanity. Each day, it was believed, the gods moved from the divine realm to their temples, their homes in the human world.

There they inhabited the cult images , the statues that depicted deities and allowed humans to interact with them in temple rituals. This movement between realms was sometimes described as a journey between the sky and the earth.

As temples were the focal points of Egyptian cities, the god in a city's main temple was the patron deity for the city and the surrounding region.

They could establish themselves in new cities, or their range of influence could contract. Therefore, a given deity's main cult center in historical times is not necessarily his or her place of origin.

When kings from Thebes took control of the country at start of the Middle Kingdom c. In Egyptian belief, names express the fundamental nature of the things to which they refer.

In keeping with this belief, the names of deities often relate to their roles or origins. The name of the predatory goddess Sekhmet means "powerful one", the name of the mysterious god Amun means "hidden one", and the name of Nekhbet , who was worshipped in the city of Nekheb , means "she of Nekheb".

Many other names have no certain meaning, even when the gods who bear them are closely tied to a single role. The names of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb do not resemble the Egyptian terms for sky and earth.

The Egyptians also devised false etymologies giving more meanings to divine names. The gods were believed to have many names.

Among them were secret names that conveyed their true natures more profoundly than others. To know the true name of a deity was to have power over it.

The importance of names is demonstrated by a myth in which Isis poisons the superior god Ra and refuses to cure him unless he reveals his secret name to her.

Upon learning the name, she tells it to her son, Horus, and by learning it they gain greater knowledge and power. In addition to their names, gods were given epithets , like "possessor of splendor", "ruler of Abydos ", or "lord of the sky", that describe some aspect of their roles or their worship.

Because of the gods' multiple and overlapping roles, deities can have many epithets—with more important gods accumulating more titles—and the same epithet can apply to many deities.

The Egyptians regarded the division between male and female as fundamental to all beings, including deities. Sex and gender were closely tied to creation and thus rebirth.

Female deities were often relegated to a supporting role, stimulating their male consorts' virility and nurturing their children, although goddesses were given a larger role in procreation late in Egyptian history.

Female deities also had a violent aspect that could be seen either positively, as with the goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet who protected the king, or negatively.

The Egyptian conception of sexuality was heavily focused on heterosexual reproduction, and homosexual acts were usually viewed with disapproval.

Some texts nevertheless refer to homosexual behavior between male deities. Other couplings between male deities could be viewed positively and even produce offspring, as in one text in which Khnum is born from the union of Ra and Shu.

Egyptian deities are connected in a complex and shifting array of relationships. A god's connections and interactions with other deities helped define its character.

Thus Isis, as the mother and protector of Horus, was a great healer as well as the patroness of kings. Family relationships are a common type of connection between gods.

Deities often form male and female pairs. Families of three deities, with a father, mother, and child, represent the creation of new life and the succession of the father by the child, a pattern that connects divine families with royal succession.

The pattern they set grew more widespread over time, so that many deities in local cult centers, like Ptah, Sekhmet, and their child Nefertum at Memphis and Amun, Mut , and Khonsu at Thebes, were assembled into family triads.

Hathor could act as the mother, consort, or daughter of the sun god, and the child form of Horus acted as the third member of many local family triads.

Other divine groups were composed of deities with interrelated roles, or who together represented a region of the Egyptian mythological cosmos.

There were sets of gods for the hours of the day and night and for each nome province of Egypt.

Some of these groups contain a specific, symbolically important number of deities. Ra, who is dynamic and light-producing, and Osiris, who is static and shrouded in darkness, merge into a single god each night.

These deities stood for the plurality of all gods, as well as for their own cult centers the major cities of Thebes, Heliopolis , and Memphis and for many threefold sets of concepts in Egyptian religious thought.

Nine, the product of three and three, represents a multitude, so the Egyptians called several large groups "enneads", or sets of nine, even if they had more than nine members.

This divine assemblage had a vague and changeable hierarchy. Gods with broad influence in the cosmos or who were mythologically older than others had higher positions in divine society.

At the apex of this society was the king of the gods , who was usually identified with the creator deity. Horus was the most important god in the Early Dynastic Period, Ra rose to preeminence in the Old Kingdom, Amun was supreme in the New, and in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, Isis was the divine queen and creator goddess.

The gods were believed to manifest in many forms. The spirits of the gods were composed of many of these same elements.

Any visible manifestation of a god's power could be called its ba ; thus, the sun was called the ba of Ra. The cult images of gods that were the focus of temple rituals, as well as the sacred animals that represented certain deities, were believed to house divine ba s in this way.

Nationally important deities gave rise to local manifestations, which sometimes absorbed the characteristics of older regional gods.

During the New Kingdom, one man was accused of stealing clothes by an oracle supposed to communicate messages from Amun of Pe-Khenty.

He consulted two other local oracles of Amun hoping for a different judgment. Horus could be a powerful sky god or vulnerable child, and these forms were sometimes counted as independent deities.

Gods were combined with each other as easily as they were divided. A god could be called the ba of another, or two or more deities could be joined into one god with a combined name and iconography.

Unlike other situations for which this term is used, the Egyptian practice was not meant to fuse competing belief systems, although foreign deities could be syncretized with native ones.

Syncretic combinations were not permanent; a god who was involved in one combination continued to appear separately and to form new combinations with other deities.

Horus absorbed several falcon gods from various regions, such as Khenti-irty and Khenti-kheti , who became little more than local manifestations of him; Hathor subsumed a similar cow goddess, Bat ; and an early funerary god, Khenti-Amentiu , was supplanted by Osiris and Anubis.

In the reign of Akhenaten c. Akhenaten ceased to fund the temples of other deities and erased gods' names and images on monuments, targeting Amun in particular.

This new religious system, sometimes called Atenism , differed dramatically from the polytheistic worship of many gods in all other periods.

The Aten had no mythology, and it was portrayed and described in more abstract terms than traditional deities. Whereas, in earlier times, newly important gods were integrated into existing religious beliefs, Atenism insisted on a single understanding of the divine that excluded the traditional multiplicity of perspectives.

There is evidence suggesting that the general populace continued to worship other gods in private. For these reasons, the Egyptologists Dominic Montserrat and John Baines have suggested that Akhenaten may have been monolatrous , worshipping a single deity while acknowledging the existence of others.

Scholars have long debated whether traditional Egyptian religion ever asserted that the multiple gods were, on a deeper level, unified.

Reasons for this debate include the practice of syncretism, which might suggest that all the separate gods could ultimately merge into one, and the tendency of Egyptian texts to credit a particular god with power that surpasses all other deities.

Another point of contention is the appearance of the word "god" in wisdom literature , where the term does not refer to a specific deity or group of deities.

Wallis Budge believed that Egyptian commoners were polytheistic, but knowledge of the true monotheistic nature of the religion was reserved for the elite, who wrote the wisdom literature.

In , Erik Hornung published a study [Note 3] rebutting these views. He points out that in any given period many deities, even minor ones, were described as superior to all others.

He also argues that the unspecified "god" in the wisdom texts is a generic term for whichever deity is relevant to the reader in the situation at hand.

Henotheism , Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels. An Egyptian could worship any deity at a particular time and credit it with supreme power in that moment, without denying the other gods or merging them all with the god that he or she focused on.

Hornung concludes that the gods were fully unified only in myth, at the time before creation, after which the multitude of gods emerged from a uniform nonexistence.

Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows.

It equated the single deity with the sun and dismissed all other gods. Then, in the backlash against Atenism, priestly theologians described the universal god in a different way, one that coexisted with traditional polytheism.

The one god was believed to transcend the world and all the other deities, while at the same time, the multiple gods were aspects of the one.

According to Assmann, this one god was especially equated with Amun, the dominant god in the late New Kingdom, whereas for the rest of Egyptian history the universal deity could be identified with many other gods.

Allen says that coexisting notions of one god and many gods would fit well with the "multiplicity of approaches" in Egyptian thought, as well as with the henotheistic practice of ordinary worshippers.

He says that the Egyptians may have recognized the unity of the divine by "identifying their uniform notion of 'god' with a particular god, depending on the particular situation.

Egyptian writings describe the gods' bodies in detail. They are made of precious materials; their flesh is gold, their bones are silver, and their hair is lapis lazuli.

They give off a scent that the Egyptians likened to the incense used in rituals. Some texts give precise descriptions of particular deities, including their height and eye color.

Yet these characteristics are not fixed; in myths, gods change their appearances to suit their own purposes. The Egyptians' visual representations of their gods are therefore not literal.

They symbolize specific aspects of each deity's character, functioning much like the ideograms in hieroglyphic writing.

His black coloring alludes to the color of mummified flesh and to the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.

Most deities were depicted in several ways. Hathor could be a cow, cobra, lioness, or a woman with bovine horns or ears.

By depicting a given god in different ways, the Egyptians expressed different aspects of its essential nature. These forms include men and women anthropomorphism , animals zoomorphism , and, more rarely, inanimate objects.

Combinations of forms , such as deities with human bodies and animal heads, are common. Certain features of divine images are more useful than others in determining a god's identity.

The head of a given divine image is particularly significant. In contrast, the objects held in gods' hands tend to be generic.

The forms in which the gods are shown, although diverse, are limited in many ways. Many creatures that are widespread in Egypt were never used in divine iconography.

Others could represent many deities, often because these deities had major characteristics in common. For instance, the horse, which was only introduced in the Second Intermediate Period c.

Similarly, the clothes worn by anthropomorphic deities in most periods changed little from the styles used in the Old Kingdom: a kilt, false beard, and often a shirt for male gods and a long, tight-fitting dress for goddesses.

The basic anthropomorphic form varies. Child gods are depicted nude, as are some adult gods when their procreative powers are emphasized.

In official writings, pharaohs are said to be divine, and they are constantly depicted in the company of the deities of the pantheon.

Each pharaoh and his predecessors were considered the successors of the gods who had ruled Egypt in mythic prehistory.

The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut , connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship.

For these reasons, scholars disagree about how genuinely most Egyptians believed the king to be a god. He may only have been considered divine when he was performing ceremonies.

However much it was believed, the king's divine status was the rationale for his role as Egypt's representative to the gods, as he formed a link between the divine and human realms.

These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. Although the Egyptians believed their gods to be present in the world around them, contact between the human and divine realms was mostly limited to specific circumstances.

The ba of a god was said to periodically leave the divine realm to dwell in the images of that god. In these states, it was believed, people could come close to the gods and sometimes receive messages from them.

The Egyptians therefore believed that in death they would exist on the same level as the gods and understand their mysterious nature.

Temples, where the state rituals were carried out, were filled with images of the gods. The most important temple image was the cult statue in the inner sanctuary.

These statues were usually less than life-size and made of the same precious materials that were said to form the gods' bodies. The gods residing in the temples of Egypt collectively represented the entire pantheon.

To insulate the sacred power in the sanctuary from the impurities of the outside world, the Egyptians enclosed temple sanctuaries and greatly restricted access to them.

People other than kings and high priests were thus denied contact with cult statues. The more public parts of temples often incorporated small places for prayer, from doorways to freestanding chapels near the back of the temple building.

Egyptian gods were involved in human lives as well as in the overarching order of nature. This divine influence applied mainly to Egypt, as foreign peoples were traditionally believed to be outside the divine order.

In the New Kingdom, when other nations were under Egyptian control, foreigners were said to be under the sun god's benign rule in the same way that Egyptians were.

Thoth, as the overseer of time, was said to allot fixed lifespans to both humans and gods. Several texts refer to gods influencing or inspiring human decisions, working through a person's "heart"—the seat of emotion and intellect in Egyptian belief.

Deities were also believed to give commands, instructing the king in the governance of his realm and regulating the management of their temples. Egyptian texts rarely mention direct commands given to private persons, and these commands never evolved into a set of divinely enforced moral codes.

Because deities were the upholders of maat , morality was connected with them. For example, the gods judged humans' moral righteousness after death, and by the New Kingdom, a verdict of innocence in this judgment was believed to be necessary for admittance into the afterlife.

In general, however, morality was based on practical ways to uphold maat in daily life, rather than on strict rules that the gods laid out.

Humans had free will to ignore divine guidance and the behavior required by maat , but by doing so they could bring divine punishment upon themselves.

Natural disasters and human ailments were seen as the work of angry divine ba s. Egyptian texts take different views on whether the gods are responsible when humans suffer unjustly.

Misfortune was often seen as a product of isfet , the cosmic disorder that was the opposite of maat , and therefore the gods were not guilty of causing evil events.

Some deities who were closely connected with isfet , such as Set, could be blamed for disorder within the world without placing guilt on the other gods.

Some writings do accuse the deities of causing human misery, while others give theodicies in the gods' defense.

Because of this human misbehavior, the creator is distant from his creation, allowing suffering to exist. New Kingdom writings do not question the just nature of the gods as strongly as those of the Middle Kingdom.

They emphasize humans' direct, personal relationships with deities and the gods' power to intervene in human events.

People in this era put faith in specific gods who they hoped would help and protect them through their lives. As a result, upholding the ideals of maat grew less important than gaining the gods' favor as a way to guarantee a good life.

Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people, [] who sought the gods' help for their personal problems.

Official religion involved a variety of rituals, based in temples. Some rites were performed every day, whereas others were festivals, taking place at longer intervals and often limited to a particular temple or deity.

Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine.

These processions served various purposes. Such rituals were meant to be repetitions of the events of the mythic past, renewing the beneficial effects of the original events.

Finding Ra wounded in space, Horus returns his spear, allowing Ra to repel Apophis, and Anubis to reopen the gates.

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Thus Isis, as the mother and protector of Horus, was a great healer as well as the patroness of kings.

Family relationships are a common type of connection between gods. Deities often form male and female pairs.

Families of three deities, with a father, mother, and child, represent the creation of new life and the succession of the father by the child, a pattern that connects divine families with royal succession.

The pattern they set grew more widespread over time, so that many deities in local cult centers, like Ptah, Sekhmet, and their child Nefertum at Memphis and Amun, Mut , and Khonsu at Thebes, were assembled into family triads.

Hathor could act as the mother, consort, or daughter of the sun god, and the child form of Horus acted as the third member of many local family triads.

Other divine groups were composed of deities with interrelated roles, or who together represented a region of the Egyptian mythological cosmos.

There were sets of gods for the hours of the day and night and for each nome province of Egypt. Some of these groups contain a specific, symbolically important number of deities.

Ra, who is dynamic and light-producing, and Osiris, who is static and shrouded in darkness, merge into a single god each night.

These deities stood for the plurality of all gods, as well as for their own cult centers the major cities of Thebes, Heliopolis , and Memphis and for many threefold sets of concepts in Egyptian religious thought.

Nine, the product of three and three, represents a multitude, so the Egyptians called several large groups "enneads", or sets of nine, even if they had more than nine members.

This divine assemblage had a vague and changeable hierarchy. Gods with broad influence in the cosmos or who were mythologically older than others had higher positions in divine society.

At the apex of this society was the king of the gods , who was usually identified with the creator deity.

Horus was the most important god in the Early Dynastic Period, Ra rose to preeminence in the Old Kingdom, Amun was supreme in the New, and in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, Isis was the divine queen and creator goddess.

The gods were believed to manifest in many forms. The spirits of the gods were composed of many of these same elements.

Any visible manifestation of a god's power could be called its ba ; thus, the sun was called the ba of Ra.

The cult images of gods that were the focus of temple rituals, as well as the sacred animals that represented certain deities, were believed to house divine ba s in this way.

Nationally important deities gave rise to local manifestations, which sometimes absorbed the characteristics of older regional gods. During the New Kingdom, one man was accused of stealing clothes by an oracle supposed to communicate messages from Amun of Pe-Khenty.

He consulted two other local oracles of Amun hoping for a different judgment. Horus could be a powerful sky god or vulnerable child, and these forms were sometimes counted as independent deities.

Gods were combined with each other as easily as they were divided. A god could be called the ba of another, or two or more deities could be joined into one god with a combined name and iconography.

Unlike other situations for which this term is used, the Egyptian practice was not meant to fuse competing belief systems, although foreign deities could be syncretized with native ones.

Syncretic combinations were not permanent; a god who was involved in one combination continued to appear separately and to form new combinations with other deities.

Horus absorbed several falcon gods from various regions, such as Khenti-irty and Khenti-kheti , who became little more than local manifestations of him; Hathor subsumed a similar cow goddess, Bat ; and an early funerary god, Khenti-Amentiu , was supplanted by Osiris and Anubis.

In the reign of Akhenaten c. Akhenaten ceased to fund the temples of other deities and erased gods' names and images on monuments, targeting Amun in particular.

This new religious system, sometimes called Atenism , differed dramatically from the polytheistic worship of many gods in all other periods.

The Aten had no mythology, and it was portrayed and described in more abstract terms than traditional deities.

Whereas, in earlier times, newly important gods were integrated into existing religious beliefs, Atenism insisted on a single understanding of the divine that excluded the traditional multiplicity of perspectives.

There is evidence suggesting that the general populace continued to worship other gods in private. For these reasons, the Egyptologists Dominic Montserrat and John Baines have suggested that Akhenaten may have been monolatrous , worshipping a single deity while acknowledging the existence of others.

Scholars have long debated whether traditional Egyptian religion ever asserted that the multiple gods were, on a deeper level, unified.

Reasons for this debate include the practice of syncretism, which might suggest that all the separate gods could ultimately merge into one, and the tendency of Egyptian texts to credit a particular god with power that surpasses all other deities.

Another point of contention is the appearance of the word "god" in wisdom literature , where the term does not refer to a specific deity or group of deities.

Wallis Budge believed that Egyptian commoners were polytheistic, but knowledge of the true monotheistic nature of the religion was reserved for the elite, who wrote the wisdom literature.

In , Erik Hornung published a study [Note 3] rebutting these views. He points out that in any given period many deities, even minor ones, were described as superior to all others.

He also argues that the unspecified "god" in the wisdom texts is a generic term for whichever deity is relevant to the reader in the situation at hand.

Henotheism , Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels. An Egyptian could worship any deity at a particular time and credit it with supreme power in that moment, without denying the other gods or merging them all with the god that he or she focused on.

Hornung concludes that the gods were fully unified only in myth, at the time before creation, after which the multitude of gods emerged from a uniform nonexistence.

Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows.

It equated the single deity with the sun and dismissed all other gods. Then, in the backlash against Atenism, priestly theologians described the universal god in a different way, one that coexisted with traditional polytheism.

The one god was believed to transcend the world and all the other deities, while at the same time, the multiple gods were aspects of the one.

According to Assmann, this one god was especially equated with Amun, the dominant god in the late New Kingdom, whereas for the rest of Egyptian history the universal deity could be identified with many other gods.

Allen says that coexisting notions of one god and many gods would fit well with the "multiplicity of approaches" in Egyptian thought, as well as with the henotheistic practice of ordinary worshippers.

He says that the Egyptians may have recognized the unity of the divine by "identifying their uniform notion of 'god' with a particular god, depending on the particular situation.

Egyptian writings describe the gods' bodies in detail. They are made of precious materials; their flesh is gold, their bones are silver, and their hair is lapis lazuli.

They give off a scent that the Egyptians likened to the incense used in rituals. Some texts give precise descriptions of particular deities, including their height and eye color.

Yet these characteristics are not fixed; in myths, gods change their appearances to suit their own purposes.

The Egyptians' visual representations of their gods are therefore not literal. They symbolize specific aspects of each deity's character, functioning much like the ideograms in hieroglyphic writing.

His black coloring alludes to the color of mummified flesh and to the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.

Most deities were depicted in several ways. Hathor could be a cow, cobra, lioness, or a woman with bovine horns or ears. By depicting a given god in different ways, the Egyptians expressed different aspects of its essential nature.

These forms include men and women anthropomorphism , animals zoomorphism , and, more rarely, inanimate objects.

Combinations of forms , such as deities with human bodies and animal heads, are common. Certain features of divine images are more useful than others in determining a god's identity.

The head of a given divine image is particularly significant. In contrast, the objects held in gods' hands tend to be generic. The forms in which the gods are shown, although diverse, are limited in many ways.

Many creatures that are widespread in Egypt were never used in divine iconography. Others could represent many deities, often because these deities had major characteristics in common.

For instance, the horse, which was only introduced in the Second Intermediate Period c. Similarly, the clothes worn by anthropomorphic deities in most periods changed little from the styles used in the Old Kingdom: a kilt, false beard, and often a shirt for male gods and a long, tight-fitting dress for goddesses.

The basic anthropomorphic form varies. Child gods are depicted nude, as are some adult gods when their procreative powers are emphasized.

In official writings, pharaohs are said to be divine, and they are constantly depicted in the company of the deities of the pantheon. Each pharaoh and his predecessors were considered the successors of the gods who had ruled Egypt in mythic prehistory.

The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut , connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship.

For these reasons, scholars disagree about how genuinely most Egyptians believed the king to be a god.

He may only have been considered divine when he was performing ceremonies. However much it was believed, the king's divine status was the rationale for his role as Egypt's representative to the gods, as he formed a link between the divine and human realms.

These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. Although the Egyptians believed their gods to be present in the world around them, contact between the human and divine realms was mostly limited to specific circumstances.

The ba of a god was said to periodically leave the divine realm to dwell in the images of that god. In these states, it was believed, people could come close to the gods and sometimes receive messages from them.

The Egyptians therefore believed that in death they would exist on the same level as the gods and understand their mysterious nature. Temples, where the state rituals were carried out, were filled with images of the gods.

The most important temple image was the cult statue in the inner sanctuary. These statues were usually less than life-size and made of the same precious materials that were said to form the gods' bodies.

The gods residing in the temples of Egypt collectively represented the entire pantheon. To insulate the sacred power in the sanctuary from the impurities of the outside world, the Egyptians enclosed temple sanctuaries and greatly restricted access to them.

People other than kings and high priests were thus denied contact with cult statues. The more public parts of temples often incorporated small places for prayer, from doorways to freestanding chapels near the back of the temple building.

Egyptian gods were involved in human lives as well as in the overarching order of nature. This divine influence applied mainly to Egypt, as foreign peoples were traditionally believed to be outside the divine order.

In the New Kingdom, when other nations were under Egyptian control, foreigners were said to be under the sun god's benign rule in the same way that Egyptians were.

Thoth, as the overseer of time, was said to allot fixed lifespans to both humans and gods. Several texts refer to gods influencing or inspiring human decisions, working through a person's "heart"—the seat of emotion and intellect in Egyptian belief.

Deities were also believed to give commands, instructing the king in the governance of his realm and regulating the management of their temples.

Egyptian texts rarely mention direct commands given to private persons, and these commands never evolved into a set of divinely enforced moral codes.

Because deities were the upholders of maat , morality was connected with them. For example, the gods judged humans' moral righteousness after death, and by the New Kingdom, a verdict of innocence in this judgment was believed to be necessary for admittance into the afterlife.

In general, however, morality was based on practical ways to uphold maat in daily life, rather than on strict rules that the gods laid out. Humans had free will to ignore divine guidance and the behavior required by maat , but by doing so they could bring divine punishment upon themselves.

Natural disasters and human ailments were seen as the work of angry divine ba s. Egyptian texts take different views on whether the gods are responsible when humans suffer unjustly.

Misfortune was often seen as a product of isfet , the cosmic disorder that was the opposite of maat , and therefore the gods were not guilty of causing evil events.

Some deities who were closely connected with isfet , such as Set, could be blamed for disorder within the world without placing guilt on the other gods.

Some writings do accuse the deities of causing human misery, while others give theodicies in the gods' defense. Because of this human misbehavior, the creator is distant from his creation, allowing suffering to exist.

New Kingdom writings do not question the just nature of the gods as strongly as those of the Middle Kingdom.

They emphasize humans' direct, personal relationships with deities and the gods' power to intervene in human events.

People in this era put faith in specific gods who they hoped would help and protect them through their lives. As a result, upholding the ideals of maat grew less important than gaining the gods' favor as a way to guarantee a good life.

Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people, [] who sought the gods' help for their personal problems.

Official religion involved a variety of rituals, based in temples. Some rites were performed every day, whereas others were festivals, taking place at longer intervals and often limited to a particular temple or deity.

Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine. These processions served various purposes.

Such rituals were meant to be repetitions of the events of the mythic past, renewing the beneficial effects of the original events.

Finding Ra wounded in space, Horus returns his spear, allowing Ra to repel Apophis, and Anubis to reopen the gates. A child in the crowd returns Horus' other eye and the god lays a dying Bek in Osiris's tomb beside Zaya.

Ra offers to bestow Horus with any power and all Horus wants is to bring Bek and Zaya back to life.

The other gods are also revived, except Horus' parents who had already passed into the afterlife. Horus is crowned king and declares access to the afterlife will be paid with good deeds in life.

Bek is made chief advisor and gives Horus Hathor's bracelet; Horus leaves to rescue her from the underworld. The film was produced under Summit Entertainment.

Proyas was contracted by Summit in May , to write the screenplay with Sazama and Sharpless, and to direct the film.

A crew of began pre-production in Sydney in New South Wales , and producers considered filming in Melbourne in Victoria , to take advantage of the state's tax incentive.

Docklands Studios Melbourne was too booked to accommodate Gods of Egypt , and producers were instead offered an airport facility for production.

In the film, the gods in humanoid form are 9 feet 2. Proyas used forced perspective and motion control photography to portray the difference in height between the actors portraying the gods and the humans.

Proyas called the logistical challenge a "reverse Hobbit", referring to The Lord of the Rings films, in which Hobbits are depicted as shorter than humans.

For the god Thoth, who can appear as many copies, actor Chadwick Boseman was filmed hundreds of times from different angles.

For a scene with many copies of Thoth, other actors took a day to film the scene, where Boseman filmed the scene for three days.

White actors make up most of the principal cast of Gods of Egypt. When Lionsgate began marketing the film, the Associated Press said the distributor received backlash for ethnically inaccurate casting.

Lionsgate and director Alex Proyas both issued apologies. The AP said, "While some praised the preemptive mea culpa The casting practice of white actors as Egyptian characters was first reported after filming started in March , when Daily Life ' s Ruby Hamad highlighted the practice as "Hollywood whitewashing".

Some suggested that the casting of black actor Chadwick Boseman , who plays the god Thoth , played into the Magical Negro stereotype.

The previous year, the biblical epic Exodus: Gods and Kings by director Ridley Scott received similar backlash for having a white cast.

She said with the release of Aziz Ansari 's TV series Master of None in the previous week, "Whitewashed casting and the offensiveness of brownface has pretty much dominated the pop culture conversation this week.

Promotion for the movie is beginning just as we're wrapping a banner year for discussions of diversity and gender pay equity in the film industry.

When Lionsgate followed its release of posters with a release of a theatrical trailer, Scott Mendelson at Forbes said, "The implication remains that white actors, even generic white actors with zero box office draw, are preferable in terms of domestic and overseas box office than culturally-specific minority actors who actually look like the people they are supposed to be playing.

Lincoln said of the released trailer, "Casting here stands out like a sore thumb leftover from s Hollywood.

I suspect this film generates a lot of conversation before it hits theaters February 26, In response to criticisms of its casting practice, director Alex Proyas and Lionsgate issued apologies in late November for not considering diversity; Lionsgate said it would strive to do better.

Mendelson of Forbes said the apologies were "a somewhat different response" than defenses made by Ridley Scott for Exodus and Joe Wright for Pan An unusual occurrence worth noting.

They want the cast that they selected and they don't want people to hold it against them that it's a white cast. Boseman, who plays the god Thoth, commenting on the whitewashing, said he expected the backlash to happen when he saw the script.

He said, "I'm thankful that it did, because actually, I agree with it. That's why I wanted to do it, so you would see someone of African descent playing Thoth, the father of mathematics, astronomy, the god of wisdom.

I'm not even playing an Egyptian; I'm an 8-foot-tall god who turns into a falcon. A part of me just wants to freak out, but then I think, 'There's nothing you can do about it.

In the month leading up to release, director Proyas said his film was fantasy and not intended to be history. He cited "creative license and artistic freedom of expression" to cast the actors he found to fit the roles.

He said "white-washing" was a justified concern but for his fantasy film, "To exclude any one race in service of a hypothetical theory of historical accuracy He argued that the lack of English-speaking Egyptian actors, production practicalities, the studio's requirement for box office draws, and Australia having guidelines limiting "imported" actors were all factors in casting for the film.

He concluded, "I attempted to show racial diversity, black, white, Asian, as far as I was allowed, as far as I could, given the limitations I was given.

It is obviously clear that for things to change, for casting in movies to become more diverse many forces must align. Not just the creative.

To those who are offended by the decisions which were made I have already apologised. I respect their opinion, but I hope the context of the decisions is a little clearer based on my statements here.

This time of course they have bigger axes to grind — they can rip into my movie while trying to make their mainly pale asses look so politically correct by screaming 'white-wash!!!

The magazine said the film had "a strong ensemble cast" and that its director has "had a noteworthy following". BoxOffice also said the premise could attract movie-goers who saw Clash of the Titans , Wrath of the Titans , and the Percy Jackson films.

Admissions to 3D screenings would help boost Gods of Egypt ' s gross. The magazine said factors negatively affecting the film's gross were a "lackluster reaction" to its marketing and the backlash to its predominantly white cast causing negative buzz.

It anticipated that the film's release would be front-loaded focused on profiting mainly from opening weekend due to the poor buzz, its categorization as a fantasy film, and with London Has Fallen opening the following weekend.

He said the film could attract Alex Proyas's fan base but that it had suffered "some negativity out there" due to the predominantly white casting as well as the film being perceived to have an "old-fashioned" feel.

Exhibitor Relations senior media analyst Jeff Bock said the film "feels late" years after the release of and Immortals , and an earlier production and release would have been more advantageous.

Ryan Faughnder of the Los Angeles Times said in the week before the film's release that the expected opening weekend gross meant that Lionsgate's plans to make Gods of Egypt the first film in a new franchise were unlikely.

Faughnder said the film would need to perform strongly in territories outside the United States and Canada for a sequel to be developed.

Lionsgate released Gods of Egypt in theaters globally starting on February 25 , In the United States and Canada, the film was released in 3, theaters.

Meanwhile, Gandalf still must run off of the orc jail.. Cumberbatch is therefore fascinating and suavely unpleasant in his few scenes that you just want hed been given a lot of to do: the very totally different ways each brothers have taken in life strikes you as potential dramatic dynamite, nonetheless its nearly entirely undiscovered.

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